Botany Practice Quiz II (60 questions) with Answers


1. During the Precambrian Era:
A. there were no living organisms
B. only bacteria existed
C. there were bacteria, multicellular animals and fungi
D. there were extensive forests on land

2. The first land flora on Earth was established and diversifying by the ___ period, approximately
___ Million years ago.
A. Cambrian . . . 480
B. Devonian . . . 408
C. Carboniferous . . . 362
D. Devonian . . . 3625

3. There was possibly an initial invasion of land by plants during the __.
A. Precambrian
B. Cambrian
C. Ordovician
D. Permian

4. Forests appeared and became dominant (the second major land flora on Earth) during
the _____Period, approximately ____million years ago.
A. Ordovician . . . 570
B. Devonian . . . 408
C. Carboniferous . . . 362
D. Cretaceous . . . 290

5. The origin of conifers, cycads and ginkgoes (the third land flora on Earth, the gymnosperm flora)
occurred in the ________ Period approximately _____ million years ago.
A. Carboniferous . . . 362
B. Permian . . . 290
C. Jurassic . . . 208
D. Cretaceous . . . 145

6. The extinction of the dinosaurs occurred at the end of the ____ Period.
A. Cambrian
B. Devonian
C. Jurassic
D. Cretaceous

7. The plant group that appeared and diversified concurrently with the extinction of the large
dinosaurs was the _______ approximately _____ million years ago.
A. Angiosperms; 145
B. Gymnosperms; 208
C. Cycads; 290
D. Rhyniophytes; 408

8. South America separated from Africa during the ____ Period.
A. Cambrian
B. Cretaceous
C. Devonian
D. Carboniferous

9. In the petrifaction process, plant parts are ____.
A. covered by glacier ice, and are desiccated
B. covered slowly by sediments, especially under aerobic conditions
C. covered quickly by sediments, especially under anaerobic conditions.
D. all the above are correct for different fossilization conditions

10. Compression fossils ____, whereas impression fossils do not.
A. yield data about ancient plants
B. occur in sedimentary rock
C. contain living organisms
D. contain organic material

11. The Rhynie Chert deposit _____.
A. is located in the south of France
B. was created from the precipitation of silica minerals from hot springs
C. is Cretaceous in age
D. all of the above are correct

12. It is known that the Rhyniophytes were truly land plants, not aquatic, based on the presence
of ____ on the fossilized plants.
A. seeds
B. parasites
C. stomata
D. roots

13. Rhynia was _____.
A. homosporous
B. heterosporous
C. unable to be determined, since no spores have ever been discovered
D. sterile, produced no spores

14. In the Triassic, the supercontinent Pangea broke up to form ____.
A. Euramerica an Eurasia
B. South America and Africa
C. Gondwana and Laurasia
D. none of the above

15. The beginning of the Carboniferous had a generally more ____ than exists today.
A. uniform, tropical and humid climate
B. uniform, cold and arid climate
C. variable, hot and arid climate
D. unknown climate: scientists have no way of knowing what the climate was like in the Carboniferous

16. During the late Carboniferous, the two supercontinents _____were colliding.
A. Pangea and Australia
B. Gondwana and Africa
C. Euramerica and Laurussia
D. Laurussia and Gondwana

17. During the Devonian, California ____.
A. was under water
B. had the beginnings of a coniferous forest in the Sierra Nevada
C. was a desert, devoid of any life forms
D. had a diversified flora of rhyniophytes

18. In California, glaciers developed during the colder climate intervals in the Sierra Nevada
during the ______.
A. Quaternary
B. Carboniferous
C. Cambrian
D. Cretaceous

19. The La Brea Tar Pits are ____ years old, and contain ____.
A. 4,000 to 800; fossilized fish
B. 400,000 to 80,000; early hominids
C. 4,000,000 to 800,000; tyrannosaurs
D. 40,000 to 8,000; mammoths

20. The Burgess Shale is approximately ____years old, and
contains ______.
A. 5 million; lycophytes and sphenophytes
B. 50 million; mammoths and saber tooth tigers
C. 500 million; marine organisms such as worms and arthropods
D. 100 million; small herbivorous dinosaurs

21. The telome Theory pertains to the explanation of the ____.
A. formation of fossils and process of fossilization
B. origin of modern vascular plant characteristics from primitive Rhynia-like
C. cyclical nature of periods of glaciation during geologic time
D. processes of food and water transport in plants

22. According to the telome Theory, monopodial branching was derived from dichotomous
branching by ____ of telomes.
A. overtopping
B. planation
C. syngenesis
D. undercutting

23. In the Telome Theory, the sporophyll was derived from dichotomous branching by ___of
A. reduction
B. overtopping, reduction, and planation
C. planation, syngenesis, and regression
D. syngenesis, overproduction, and recurvation

24. One primitive morphological characteristic shared by Psilotum nudum and the Devonian fossil
Rhynia is _____.
A. monopodial branching
B. leaves with reticulate venation
C. eusteles (many vascular bundles) in their stems
D. dichotomous branching

25. Psilotum, like all vascular plants, has ____.
A. flowers and fruits
B. pollen and seeds
C. leaves
D. an alternation of generations life history

26. The arborescent Lycophytes are in large part (by some estimates 80 percent) responsible for _.
A. the onset of glaciation that covered North America
B. serving as the main food source for herbivorous dinosaurs
C. the extinction of the cycads, which were shaded out by the larger lycophytes
D. the vast deposits of coal laid down in North America and Europe during the

27. The Scale Tree (Lepidodendron) of the Carboniferous Period produced _____.
A. no secondary tissues (neither wood nor bark)
B. more bark than wood, unlike modern trees
C. no bark whatsoever, food was conducted in the xylem
D. no wood whatsoever, the trunk was produced by an apical meristem

28. Lycopodium is _______.
A. unisporous and produces no gametophytes
B. bisporous and produces non-sexual gametophytes
C. heterosporous and produces unisexual gametophytes
D. homosporous and produces bisexual gametophytes

29. Certain modern Lycophyte genera, such as Selaginella, are ____.
A. seed bearing
B. completely sterile
C. homosporous
D. heterosporous

30. Heterospory is _____.
A. uncommon among the higher plants, the “seed plants”
B. the first step towards the “seed habit” of higher plants
C. unrelated to the evolution of pollen and seeds
D. a condition unknown among plants of the first three land floras on Earth

31. Equisetum, in the Sphenophyta, _____.
A. may be the longest surviving genus of plants on Earth
B. is the only lycophyte that produces pollen and seeds
C. has a gametic rather than a sporic life cycle
D. all of the above are correct

32. The gametophytes of Equisetum are ___.
A. endosporal
B. unisexual
C. stromatic (sheet-like) and photosynthetic
D. sterile (asexual)

33. Fern spores, like the spores of all vascular plants, are created by____.
A. meiosis, and are therefore haploid
B. meiosis and are therefore diploid
C. mitosis and are therefore diploid
D. mutation and are therefore sterile

34. Fern gametophytes are____.
A. delicate and much like an aquatic alga
B. perennial
C. subterranean, gaining nutrients from mycorrhizal fungi
D. aquatic as opposed to terrestrial (they live under water)

35. Microphyllous leaves (as occur on Lycophytes and Sphenophytes) are ____.
A. water conducting cells with ladder like secondary wall thickenings
B. smaller spores that produce male gametophytes
C. relatively small leaves with a single strand of vascular tissue
D. modified leaves which bear gametangia

36. Sporophylls (as occur on Lycophytes and Sphenophytes) are ___.
A. modified leaves which bear sporangia
B. leaves specialized for maximum photosynthesis
C. female sporophytes
D. veins of vascular tissue that branch from the stele

37. The sporophytes of Selaginella lepidophylla ___.
A. are restricted to very rainy and wet places
B. known as “resurrection plants”
C. usually grow to over a meter in height
D. all of the above are correct

38. With 11,000 to 12,000 species (or more), the __ are the largest and most diverse group
of terrestrial plants, second only to the flowering plants.
A. lycophytes
B. sphenophytes
C. conifers
D. ferns

39. Many lower vascular plant species, including most ferns, are homosporous.
Homosporous plants have ___ gametophytes.
A. unisexual
B. bisexual
C. asexual
D. metrosexual

40. Biennials are plants that___.
A. live one year, like spinach
B. live two years, like cabbage
C. live more than two years, like carrots
D. flower every other year, like tomatoes

41. Perennial plants have ____.
A. both primary and secondary growth
B. primary growth only
C. secondary growth only
D. primary tissues in the root, secondary tissues in the stem

42. The vascular cambium ___.
A. is a meristematic tissue
B. lies between the “wood” and the “bark”
C. produces secondary tissues
D. all of the above are correct

43. Secondary xylem is the tissue we usually refer to as ___.
A. branches
B. wood
C. bark
D. all of the above are correct

44. “Springwood” usually consists of ___.
A. vessel elements, whereas “summerwood” consists of sieve tube elements
B. fusiform initials and ray intials
C. larger cells than “summerwood”
D. living cells, whereas “winterwood” consists of dead cells

45. Rays in the wood function in ____.
A. strengthening and supporting the plant body, since there are no “bones”
B. producing lignin for the cell walls of tracheids and vessel elements
C. transporting waste materials to the heartwood
D. none of the above are correct

46. The wood of flowering trees like oak and maple, ___.
A. is softer and less dense than pine and spruce
B. lacks rays, knots and heartwood
C. is known as hardwood
D. all of the above are correct

47. Cork cells are ___ .
A. dead cells with suberized cell walls
B. living cells with thick cutinized cell walls
C. living cells with thin lignified cell walls
D. dead cells with no cell walls

48. “Hardwoods” _____.
A. have tracheids and vessel elements
B. have tracheids but no vessel elements
C. lack vessel elements but has tracheids
D. lack rays

49. The heartwood of the coast redwood, Sequoia sempervirens, is more valuable than
the sapwood because the heartwood is _______ .
A. resistant to microbial damage
B. resistant to insect damage
C. pigmented and therefore more attractive
D. all of the above are correct

50. “Softwood” is more homogeneous looking than “hardwood” in the microscope, because softwood
has ______.
A. smaller sieve tube elements
B. tracheids only
C. bigger rays
D. all of the above are correct

51. A “knot” in a board is the result of ____ .
A. the disintegration of a group of large rays inside the wood
B. a branch being buried in the wood as the tree grows
C. insect or microbial damage in tubular “galleries”
D. none of the above are correct

52. The two lateral meristems include the __.
A. wood meristem and bark meristem
B. vascular cambium and cork cambium
C. lateral branches and lateral roots
D. fusiform initial and ray initial

53. The two cell types in the vascular cambium include ___ initials.
A. fusiform and ray
B. primary and secondary
C. wood and bark
D. biennial and perennial

54. Lenticels ___.
A. produce nectar for pollinators
B. occur only on roots and absorb water
C. provide a means of gas exchange for inner tissues of the stem
D. none of the above

55. The ___ replaces the epidermis as the protective covering of the secondary plant body.
A. vascular ray
B. sapwood
C. periderm
D. vascular cambium

56. Cork cells ____.
A. have cell walls with lignin and suberin
B. store food for the plant
C. allow gas exchange for cortex parenchyma
D. remain meristematic for many years

57. Secondary phloem can be found in the ____.
A. heartwood
B. sapwood
C. inner bark
D. all of the above are correct

58. The term “bark” refers to ____.
A. all the tissues outside the vascular cambium
B. the vascular cambium
C. the xylem
D. all of the above

59. The oldest bristlecone pines in the White Mountains of eastern California have reached
the age of at least _____ years.
A. 1,200
B. 2,600
C. 4,845
D. 7,200

60. Roots and shoots share the same following primary tissues:
A. vascular, epidermis, and ground tissues
B. vascular, endodermis, and pericycle
C. hairs and protective caps for the apical meristems
D. ground tissue and endodermis

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