1- What is an essential characteristic that indicates whether a resource should be categorized as a renewable resource?
a. It must be an energy resource.
b. It must be a biological resource.
c. It must be recyclable.
d. It must have the capacity to be replenished within days to several hundred years.
e. It must have the capacity to be utilized for immediate economic benefit.
2- Sustainable yield is the highest rate at which we can use a(n) _____________without reducing its available supply.
a. renewable resource
b. perpetual resource
c. energy resource
d. mineral resource
e. nonrenewable resource
3- Evidence that we are living unsustainably includes which of the following?
a. Renewable forests are shrinking.
b. Topsoil is eroding, and the lower atmosphere is warming.
c. Deserts are expanding.
d. Deserts are shrinking.
e. Deserts are expanding, renewable forests are shrinking, topsoil is eroding and the lower atmosphere is warming.
4- Worldwide, about 70% of the water withdrawn each year is used for
a. industrial processes
b. cooling towers of power plants
c. irrigation of croplands and raising livestock
d. domestic use
e. water theme parks in tourist areas
5- All of the following are nonpoint sources of water pollution except
a. offshore oil wells
b. livestock feedlots
c. urban lands
e. parking lots
6- Which of the following is a point source of pollution?
a. acid deposition
b. urban streets
c. oil tankers
d. suburban lawns
e. parking lots
7- Nitrates and phosphates are examples of
a. disease-causing agents
b. oxygen-demanding wastes
c. organic chemicals
d. plant nutrients
8- Acids, salts, and metals are examples of
a. oxygen-demanding wastes
b. organic plant nutrients
c. inorganic plant nutrients
d. inorganic chemicals
9- An oxygen sag curve occurs when
a. Fish population numbers sag.
b. Heavy metals that have entered a stream bind oxygen molecules and remove them from the available oxygen supply.
c. The breakdown of biodegradable wastes by bacteria lowers the available oxygen in the water for organisms with high oxygen requirements.
d. Carbon dioxide values exceed dissolved oxygen values.
e. Oxygen content in the air around a particular body of water becomes slightly lower than normal
10- Which of the following developments of cultural eutrophication would occur last?
a. fish kills
b. blooms of algae
c. increase in aerobic bacteria
d. increase of plants such as duckweed
e. increase in anaerobic bacteria
11- What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
d. carbon dioxide
e. water vapor
12- Which of the following is a natural source of air pollution?
a. dust blown by wind
d. volatile organic chemicals released by some plants
e. all of the above
13- Which of the following is categorized as a secondary pollutant?
a. carbon monoxide
c. carbon dioxide
d. sulfur dioxide
14- Which of the following is not true of carbon monoxide?
a. It is a colorless, odorless gas.
b. It is highly toxic.
c. It forms during the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing materials.
d. It reacts with hemoglobin in red blood cells and reduces the body’s ability to transport oxygen.
e. It readily bio-accumulates and builds up in the fatty tissues of many aquatic organisms.
15- Which of the following are primary pollutants that eventually result in acid deposition?
a. nitrogen oxides
c. sulfur dioxide
d. carbon monoxide
e. both nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide
16- Ozone is beneficial in the stratosphere but harmful in the lower troposphere. Ironically, human activities are causing ozone to
a. decrease in the stratosphere and increase in the lower troposphere
b. increase in the stratosphere and decrease in the lower troposphere
c. level out to equilibrium in both areas so there is no substantive difference between them
d. Human activities are not causing any changes in ozone concentrations anywhere.
e. bond with nitrous oxides to form acid rain
17- Which of the following is true of methane?
a. It is a greenhouse gas.
b. It is produced by rice paddies.
c. It is produced naturally by wetlands and termites.
d. All of these answers are correct.
18- Photochemical smog is formed when primary pollutants interact with
b. water vapor
c. sulfur dioxide
19- Acid deposition can affect forests by
a. Leaching out essential plant nutrients
b. Diminishing the supply of Oxygen available to the tree
c. Releasing ions that are toxic to the trees
d. A and B are correct
e. A and C are correct
20- According to WHO (World Health Organization) and World Bank experts, indoor air pollution is
a. the world’s most serious air pollution problem
b. the world’s least serious air pollution problem
c. a serious problem in poor countries, but no problem in affluent countries
21- Which statement is the most accurate?
a. Climate is determined by average weather conditions.
b. Weather is determined by average climate conditions.
c. Climatologists examine data from one to a few years to estimate weather.
d. A general rise or fall in temperature or precipitation over 25 to 30 years is a standard time period that climatologists will study.
22- Which of the following best describes the Earth’s average surface temperature for the past 900,000 years?
a. a steady warming trend
b. fairly steady temperatures until recently
c. many fluctuations of several degrees centigrade
d. fairly steady with occasional cool spells
e. fairly steady with a recent cooling trend
23- It is recommended that we bring our atmospheric carbon dioxide levels down to _____ from the current level of _____ in order to maintain a planet with fairly constant atmospheric temperatures.
a. 450 ppm, 500 ppm
b. 350 ppm, 390 ppm
c. 388 ppm, 450 ppm
d. 488 ppm, 550 ppm
e. 560 ppm, 660 ppm
24- Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have been implicated in which of the following?
a. increased global warming
b. increased seawater acidity
c. decreased seawater temperatures
d. both increased global warming and increased seawater acidity
e. both increased global warming and decreased seawater temperatures
25- Which of the following statements is false?
a. Ozone in the lower stratosphere shields the earth from about 95% of the sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays.
b. CFCs are odorless and stable.
c. CFCs are nonflammable, nontoxic, and noncorrosive.
d. Fluorine atoms are most responsible for the breakdown of ozone to molecular oxygen.
e. CFCs are cheap to produce.
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